The fascia is a connective tissue structure that surrounds the muscles, internal organs, blood vessels and nerves, binding them together. Fascia consists mainly of collagen, such as ligaments and tendons.

What are the functions of the fascia?

The fascia provides an environment allowing muscles to move relative to one another and transmit muscle movement to the bones. It also provides mobile wrapping for the nerves and blood vessels that pass through and in-between muscles, as well as positions the various viscera.

Fascial Manipulation


This manual therapy technique was developed in Italy by physiotherapist Luigi Stecco and doctors Carla Stecco and Antonio Stecco. The method has evolved over the past 35 years thanks to cadaver dissection, ultrasound analysis and clinical observation. The different treatment regions are divided into particular points termed “centers of coordination” as well as complex movement patterns that center around joint and muscle dysfunction.

How does fascial manipulation work?

The Fascial Manipulation technique is a biomechanical model that helps us to understand the role of fascia in musculoskeletal disorders. It helps find and treat abnormal adhesions, or “densifications”, that are usually associated with certain injuries. These adhesions often change the transmission of force through the muscles and tendons, causing constant or recurrent pain.

The foundation of this technique lies in the discovery of problematic fascia areas related to a specific limited movement and pain location. Once the limited or painful movement is discovered, the practitioner manipulates this densification or adhesion by creating prolonged friction over the area, which can be painful. By eliminating these adhesions through fascial manipulation, the transmission of force returns to normal and movement is restored along with a rapid decrease in pain.

Fascial Distortion Model


Dr. Stephen Typaldos, D.O., Osteopath, developed the Fascial Distortion Model (FDM). It’s called a “model” because it’s not a technique.

It’s actually a treatment model in which virtually all soft-tissue lesions or musculoskeletal disorders are treated. They are treated through one or more of the 6 different types of connective tissue alterations of the body (Triggerbands, Continuum Distortions, Herniated Trigger points, Folding Distortions, Tectonic Fixings and Cylinder Distortions).

The FDM consists of a detailed physical assessment leading to an accurate diagnosis, while providing objective results.

Verbal and physical patient descriptions, associated to the mechanism of injury and relevant orthopedic tests lead the practitioner to the appropriate form of soft tissue treatment.